Leukocyte antibody detection panel (cross-match)

THE LABORATORY

The Laboratory of Reproductive Immunology in Locus Medicus SA is one of the few centers that provide the full range of specialized reproductive immunology tests, as well as an in depth interpretation of results when required. LRI was established in 1996 because of the demand for highly specialized immunological diagnostic tests by the clinical practices of Locus Medicus. Since then, over the course of almost 20 years of close collaboration with reproductive medicine specialists and subfertile couples, LRI fully developed and matured into the leading laboratory specializing in reproductive immunology in the country and one of a few of its kind internationally.

SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL

LRI dedicated staff consists of highly specialized immunologists and scientists of related fields with extensive diagnostic and research experience.

RESEARCH

As a research laboratory, LOCUS MEDICUS SA, has produced more than 20 international scientific journal publications. Our publications including papers specializing on reproductive immunology are listed here...

BASIC INFORMATION 

Increased NK activity has been associated with increased peripheral blood NK concentration as shown by studies comparing NK populations between women with a history of recurrent abortions and women with normal pregnancies. NK cytotoxicity Additionally, Assessment of NK activity informs us that NK cytotoxicity is significantly lowered after therapy. Additionally, a large number of studies show that NK activity is implicated in the rejection of karyotypicaly healthy embryos and that NK activity regulation is associated with reproductive success. We advocate the absolute count of NK cells and their subpopulations in peripheral blood of women with a history of recurrent abortions. Furthermore, NK cytotoxity assay informs us on NK activity which is not directly analogous to NK population concentration. T-helper cells are pivotal in maintaining pregnancy. It has been suggested that Th2 cells facilitate pregnancy while Th1 cells inhibit embryonic development. An increased Th1 over Th2 population has been found in women with a history of recurrent abortions. A shift of the Τh1/Th2 ratio towards the Th2 population is considered favorable for pregnancy. Recently, the role of Tregs in suppressing the immunologic response of the mother against the embryo is becoming more evident. A lot of studies associate abortion of unknown etiology with a reduced presence of Tregs. Tregs seem to be increased in women with successful pregnancies in contrast to women with a history of recurrent abortions which show low numbers of Tregs. So, it could be argued that a complete investigation of infertility would include Treg assessment.

Services

A. LYMPHOCYTE EVALUATION TESTS

·    Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes (Reproductive Immunophenotype (NK)

·    NK Cytotoxicity Assay

·    Th1/Th2 Intracellular Cytokine Assay

·    T Regulatory Cell Assay (TRegs)

·    Leukocyte antibody detection panel (cross-match)

B. LYMPHOCYTE IMMUNIZATION THERAPY (LIT)

·    Preparation and administration of LIT

C. AUTOANTIBODY DETECTION

·    Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APA) 

·    Anti Nuclear Antibodies (ANA,ENA) 

·    AntiThyroid, Anti β2-GP1 antibodies and Lupus anticoagulant

D. HLA TYPING 

·    DQ-alpha Sharing (DQa)

REFERENCES:  

  1. Garrido-Gimenez C, and Alijotas-Reig J. Recurrent miscarriage: causes, evaluation and management. Postgraduate medical journal. 2015;91(1073):151-62.
  2. Kwak JY, Kwak FM, Ainbinder SW, Ruiz AM, and Beer AE. Elevated peripheral blood natural killer cells are effectively downregulated by immunoglobulin G infusion in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. American journal of reproductive immunology. 1996;35(4):363-9.
  3. Roussev RG, Ng SC, and Coulam CB. Natural killer cell functional activity suppression by intravenous immunoglobulin, intralipid and soluble human leukocyte antigen-G. American journal of reproductive immunology. 2007;57(4):262-9.
  4. Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven AL, Heineman MJ, and Faas MM. The immunology of successful pregnancy. Human reproduction update. 2003;9(4):347-57.
  5. Kwak-Kim JY, Chung-Bang HS, Ng SC, Ntrivalas EI, Mangubat CP, Beaman KD, Beer AE, and Gilman-Sachs A. Increased T helper 1 cytokine responses by circulating T cells are present in women with recurrent pregnancy losses and in infertile women with multiple implantation failures after IVF. Human reproduction. 2003;18(4):767-73.
  6. Williams Z. Inducing tolerance to pregnancy. The New England journal of medicine. 2012;367(12):1159-61.
  7. Somerset DA, Zheng Y, Kilby MD, Sansom DM, and Drayson MT. Normal human pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the immune suppressive CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T-cell subset. Immunology.